Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Analysis Of Automat By Edward Hopper - 732 Words

A Bleak Seclusion Loneliness. A choice or an imposition, it can sometimes be hard to simply shut out the world and listen to the world in our minds. Rather, as our populations and communities continue to swell, our social inclination only encourages us to broaden our relationships. In the search for a companion to disclose our superficial thoughts to, the painting Automat by Edward Hopper reminds me that it’s important to set aside a little time for self-reflecting, so that I may learn more about the one companion that I have for life: myself. Painted at the height of the Roaring Twenties in 1927, this Hopper painting depicts a solitary woman sat at a table in an automat, hence the title. The painting itself is muted and cold, complete†¦show more content†¦A comment I found especially intriguing was one of a journalist named James Peacock, who, in reference to the Automat, said, â€Å"with vivid colours against dark shades, Hopper has a knack for capturing humanity’s default state of isolation.† According to Peacock, the woman, like all of us, is a naturally introverted creature, and while I disagree that humans do not crave interaction, I appreciate Peacock’s description of how Hopper’s color scheme strengthens the somber mood. Additionally, the empty chair across from her further symbolizes that she is without company as the vacant furniture accentuates the mostly unoccupied space. While it remains unknown as to what the woman’s plan is, it can be concurred that the woman is me ant to symbolize reclusiveness. Conversely, in a more technical sense, automats have found a slight resurgence within the last few years with the opening of Eatsa in San Francisco (Stein). In short, automats are glorified vending machines, equipped with tables for eating the meals you bought sans human interaction. But this lack in the formality of ordering from a human being creates the dilemma of what automats will mean for us as a society. The practice of social situations can often be found in the interactions of those in the service industry, and Hopper’s painting only increases my confidence in the hypothesis that automats have a foreseeable future in creating a less social community. The woman sat by herself obviously

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman - 1472 Words

The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Charlotte Perkins Gilmans, The Yellow Wallpaper is a partial autobiography. It was written shortly after the author suffered a nervous breakdown. This story was written to help save people from being driven crazy. Appropriately, this short story is about a mentally disturbed woman and her husbands attempts to help her get well. He does so by convincing her that solitude and constant bed rest is the best way to cure her problem. She is not allowed to write or do anything that would require thinking. The woman is restricted to a room where she slowly begins to go insane. Atrocious yellow wallpaper covers this room and it aids in her insanity. The†¦show more content†¦For instance, at one point in the story the woman states, Personally, I disagree with their [John and her brother] ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good. But what is one to do? The last sentence displays the womans constant inability to stick up for herself when she has ideas that differ from those of the influential males in her life. He treats her like a child and just like a child she is kept in this room. Inside the room are rings and things that reminds her of a childs gymnasium. There is also a gate and at the top of the stairs and bars on the windows. These add on to her seclusion. When she tells her husband that the room she is being restricted to is probably not the best choice, considering the many other rooms in the estate, he is quick to dismiss her fears and plead with her to act sanely. The writing plays an important part in this story. It is how the reader finds out the narrators thoughts, and it is what is believed to have made her sick in the first place. Johns sister, Jennie, is the maid. The narrator states, I verily believe she thinks it is the writing which made me sick.Show MoreRelatedThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman885 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen a stigma around mental illness and feminism. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in the 1900’s. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† has many hidden truths within the story. The story was an embellished version her own struggle with what was most likely post-partum depression. As the story progresses, one can see that she is not receiving proper treatment for her depression and thus it is getting worse. Gilman uses the wallpaper and what she sees in it to symbolize her desire to escapeRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman846 Words   |à ‚  4 PagesHumans are flawed individuals. Although flaws can be bad, people learn and grow from the mistakes made. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†, gives one a true look at using flaws to help one grow. Gilman gives her reader’s a glimpse into what her life would have consisted of for a period of time in her life. Women were of little importance other than to clean the house and to reproduce. This story intertwines the reality of what the lives of woman who were considered toRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1362 Words   |  6 Pagesas freaks. In the short story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, both of these elements are present. Gilman did a wonderful job portraying how women are not taken seriously and how lightly mental illnesses are taken. Gilman had, too, had firsthand experience with the physician in the story. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s believes that there really wa s no difference in means of way of thinking between men or women is strongly. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a short story about a woman whoRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1547 Words   |  7 PagesCharlotte Perkins Gilman s career as a leading feminists and social activist translated into her writing as did her personal life. Gilman s treatment for her severe depression and feelings of confinement in her marriage were paralleled by the narrator in her shorty story, The Yellow Wallpaper. Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut. Her parents, Mary Fitch Perkins and Fredrick Beecher Perkins, divorced in 1869. Her dad, a distinguished librarian and magazine editorRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman2032 Words   |  9 Pagesâ€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a poem about women facing unequal marriages, and women not being able to express themselves the way they want too. Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in 1860, and died in 1935. This poem was written in 1892. When writing this poem, women really had no rights, they were like men’s property. So writing â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† during this time era, was quite shocking and altered society at the time. (Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Feminization ofRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman904 Words   |  4 Pagescom/us/definiton/americaneglish/rest-cure?q=rest+cure). Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote The Yellow Wallpaper as a reflection of series of events that happened in her own life. Women who fought the urge to be the typical stereotype were seen as having mental instabilities and were considered disobedient. The societal need for women to conform to the standards in the 1800s were very high. They were to cook, clean and teach their daughters how to take care of the men. Gilman grew up without her father and she vowedRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman999 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a story of a woman s psychological breakdown, which is shown through an imaginative conversation with the wallpaper. The relationship between the female narrator and the wallpaper reveals the inner condition of the narrator and also symbolically shows how women are oppressed in society. The story, read through a feminist lens, reflects a woman s struggle against the patriarchal power structure. In the â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†, Charlotte Perkins Gilman uses the wallpaperRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman Essay1208 Words   |  5 Pagesthat wallpaper as I did?† the woman behind the pattern was an image of herself. She has been the one â€Å"stooping and creeping.† The Yellow Wallpaper was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. In the story, three characters are introduced, Jane (the narrator), John, and Jennie. The Yellow Wallpaper is an ironic story that takes us inside the mind and emotions of a woma n suffering a slow mental breakdown. The narrator begins to think that another woman is creeping around the room behind the wallpaper, attemptingRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman846 Words   |  4 PagesThe dignified journey of the admirable story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† created by Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s, gave the thought whether or not the outcome was influenced by female oppression and feminism. Female oppression and feminist encouraged a series of women to have the freedom to oppose for their equal rights. Signified events in the story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† resulted of inequality justice for women. Charlotte Perkins Gilman gave the reader different literary analysis to join the unjustifiableRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1704 Words   |  7 PagesEscaping The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) whom is most acclaimed for her short story The Yellow Wallpaper (1891) was a women’s author that was relatively revolutionary. Gilman makes an appalling picture of captivity and confinement in the short story, outlining a semi-personal photo of a young lady experiencing the rest cure treatment by her spouse, whom in addition to being her husband was also her therapist. Gilman misused the rest cure in The Yellow Wallpaper to alarm other The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman - 1472 Words â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1892, is a great example of early works pertaining to feminism and the disease of insanity. Charlotte Gilman’s own struggles as a woman, mother, and wife shine through in this short story capturing the haunting realism of a mental breakdown.The main character, much like Gilman herself, slips into bouts of depression after the birth of her child and is prescribed a ‘rest cure’ to relieve the young woman of her suffering. Any use of the mind or source of stimulus is strictly prohibited, including the narrator’s favorite hobby of writing. The woman’s husband, a physician, installs into his wife that the rest treatment is correct and will only due harm if not followed through. This type of treatment ultimately drives the woman insane, causing her to envision a woman crawling behind the yellow wallpaper of her room. Powerlessness and repression the main character is subject to crea tes an even more poignant message through the narrator’s mental breakdown. The ever present theme of subordination of women in â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is advanced throughout the story by the literary devices of symbolism, imagery, and allegory. The symbolism of multiple aspects of â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† help to make the reader understand the subordination of women and the heinousness of such subordination. Moonlight is the first symbolism one can see the prominence of. The moon has long been a symbol of the woman as with earlyShow MoreRelatedThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman885 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen a stigma around mental illness and feminism. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in the 1900’s. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† has many hidden truths within the story. The story was an embellished version her own struggle with what was most likely post-partum depression. As the story progr esses, one can see that she is not receiving proper treatment for her depression and thus it is getting worse. Gilman uses the wallpaper and what she sees in it to symbolize her desire to escapeRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman846 Words   |  4 PagesHumans are flawed individuals. Although flaws can be bad, people learn and grow from the mistakes made. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†, gives one a true look at using flaws to help one grow. Gilman gives her reader’s a glimpse into what her life would have consisted of for a period of time in her life. Women were of little importance other than to clean the house and to reproduce. This story intertwines the reality of what the lives of woman who were considered toRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1362 Words   |  6 Pagesas freaks. In the short story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, both of these el ements are present. Gilman did a wonderful job portraying how women are not taken seriously and how lightly mental illnesses are taken. Gilman had, too, had firsthand experience with the physician in the story. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s believes that there really was no difference in means of way of thinking between men or women is strongly. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a short story about a woman whoRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1547 Words   |  7 PagesCharlotte Perkins Gilman s career as a leading feminists and social activist translated into her writing as did her personal life. Gilman s treatment for her severe depression and feelings of confinement in her marriage were paralleled by the narrator in her shorty story, The Yellow Wallpaper. Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut. Her parents, Mary Fitch Perkins and Fredrick Beecher Perkins, divorced in 1869. Her dad, a distinguished librarian and magazine editorRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman2032 Words   |  9 Pagesâ€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a poem about women facing unequal marriages, and women not being able to express themselves the way they want too. Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in 1860, and died in 1935. This poem was written in 1892. When writing this poem, women really had no rights, they were like men’s property. So writing â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† during this time era, was quite shocking and altered society at the time. (Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Feminization ofRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman904 Words   |  4 Pagescom/us/definiton/americaneglish/rest-cure?q=rest+cure). Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote The Yellow Wallpaper as a reflection of series of events that happened in her own life. Women who fought the urge to be the typical stereotype were seen as having mental instabilities and were considered disobedient. The societal need for women to conform to the standards in the 1800s were very high. They were to cook, clean and teach their daughters how to take care of the men. Gilman grew up without her father and she vowedRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman999 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a story of a woman s psychological breakdown, which is shown through an imaginative conversation with the wallpaper. The relationship between the female narrator and the wallpaper reveals the inner condition of the narrator and also symbolically shows how women are oppressed in society. The story, read through a feminist lens, reflects a woman s struggle against the patriarchal power structure. In the â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper†, Charlotte Perkins Gilman uses the wallpaperRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman Essay1208 Words   |  5 Pagesthat wallpaper as I did?† the woman behind the pattern was an image of herself. She has been the one â€Å"stooping and creeping.† The Yellow Wallpaper was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. In the story, three characters are introduced, Jane (the narrator), John, and Jennie. The Yellow Wallpaper is an ironic story that takes us inside the mind and emotions of a woma n suffering a slow mental breakdown. The narrator begins to think that another woman is creeping around the room behind the wallpaper, attemptingRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman846 Words   |  4 PagesThe dignified journey of the admirable story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† created by Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s, gave the thought whether or not the outcome was influenced by female oppression and feminism. Female oppression and feminist encouraged a series of women to have the freedom to oppose for their equal rights. Signified events in the story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† resulted of inequality justice for women. Charlotte Perkins Gilman gave the reader different literary analysis to join the unjustifiableRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1704 Words   |  7 PagesEscaping The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) whom is most acclaimed for her short story The Yellow Wallpaper (1891) was a women’s author that was relatively revolutionary. Gilman makes an appalling picture of captivity and confinement in the short story, outlining a semi-personal photo of a young lady experiencing the rest cure treatment by her spouse, whom in addition to being her husband was also her therapist. Gilman misused the rest cure in The Yellow Wallpaper to alarm other

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

William Shakespeare s Sonnet 18 - 1311 Words

Shakespeare’s â€Å"Sonnet 18† is, on the surface, another one of Shakespeare’s poems that praises the endless and otherworldly beauty of a nameless woman, lamenting that Death will eventually take it, as he takes everything. However, there is more to this sonnet than it seems. While the aforementioned description is true, the rhyming couplet coupled with Shakespeare’s trademark mastery of language and wordplay create a completely different reading experience. It is its own self-fulfilling prophecy, as the promise to immortalize the sonnet’s subject’s beauty is upheld by the mere existence and continued readings of the poem. The first quatrain is straightforward praise of the lady’s beauty. Acting like a man wooing a lady by offering her a compliment, the sonnet’s first line is a polite introduction to the rest of the admiration. At the beginning, Shakespeare plays down his poetic ability, saying that he can compare this lady to a summer’s day, but his words are inefficient. Her beauty cannot be captured by words alone, and it is impossible to compare her to a summer’s day, for she far surpasses the very idea of peak natural beauty. This is a stark contrast to the end of the sonnet where he lauds and praises his own writing, saying that her beauty itself is not self-preserving, it is his poem that will allow her beauty and him along with it to live forever. The powerful imagines of buds being shaken by harsh winds suggest that summer itself has a delicate side, and that itShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 182829 Words   |  12 Pagesrespective poems, the poets explore love in various forms. In Sonnet 116 we see love as pure, immeasurable and immortal; William Shakespeare continues this conceit in Sonnet 18 too. Within My Last Duchess, love explores the submissive and possessive side effects of being completely infatuated, which similarly links with La Belle, however instead of pa triarchal power, domination is shown through a woman. First Love is comparable to both Sonnets, in which love is portrayed passionately, presenting realRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 181231 Words   |  5 PagesShakespearean sonnets are famous for conveying the most famous of love poems; they consist of three quatrains that are written in iambic pentameter. Shakespeare deviates from the regular iamb pattern of one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable to represent the effect of time and how it is limited by mortality. William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 illustrates the theme of immortalization and how Shakespeare eternally captures his love for poetry. It is in his ability to immortalize hisRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 181692 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Sonnet 18† may be the most famous lyric poem in English. Among Shakespeare’s works, only lines such as â€Å"To be or not to be† and â€Å"Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?† are better-known. On the surface, this poem is a statement of praise about the beauty of the speaker’s love interest, but when you look closely you can see how the speaker is actually praising himself for his skills. This is also Shakespeare’s first poem in the sonnets that doesn’t explicitly encourage having children. The procreationRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnet 18 And 130900 Words   |  4 Pages(Line 1). These are both two of the famous lines from William Shakespeare’s sonnet 18 and 130. William Shakespeare was an intelligent English playwright, poet, and dramatist during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. He is known as one of the greatest playwrights of all time. Sonnet 18 and 130 are two of Shakespeareâ€℠¢s most famous poems. Sonnet 18 is a love poem about how he compares the woman’s love to a summer’s day. Sonnet 130 has a different approach. It is still a comparisonRead MoreAnalysis Of William Shakespeare ´s Sonnet 18 And Percy Shelleys Ozymandias994 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen at the epicenter of many great works. Both William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 and Percy Shelley’s Ozymandias discuss love for one’s self. Although both poets utilize figurative language to describe how love can be represented, they do so in very different ways. Shakespeare employs nature to act as a symbol for the love of life. In contrast, Shelley implements metaphor and allusion to demonstrate how love is finite. William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 is a love note to a young man. It was common duringRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser771 Words   |  4 Pagesworks of William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser it is clear that some similarities are apparent, however the two poets encompass different writing styles, as well as different topics that relate to each other in their own unique ways. In Shakespeare’s â€Å"Sonnet 18† and Spenser’s â€Å"Sonnet 75†, both poets speak of love in terms of feelings and actions by using different expressive views, allowing the similar topics to contain clear distinctions. Although Edmund Spenser’s â€Å"Sonnet 75† and William Shakespeare’sRead MoreComparing And Contrasting Two Sonnets1141 Words   |  5 Pages Comparing and Contrasting Two Sonnets ‘Sonnet 116’ by William Shakespeare and ‘What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, And Where, And Why† by Edna St. Vincent Millay are both sonnets that discuss companionship and a glimpse of each poet’s experiences. In ‘Sonnet 116’, Shakespeare illustrates how capability is weakened by its metaphysical stereotype and ideals such as, love, while on the contrary, in ‘What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, And Where, And Why† Millay feeds on the chaos between the idealRead MoreDifferent Versions Of Shall I Compare Thee And A Summer s Day?967 Words   |  4 PagesTwo Versions of Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? William Shakespeare was the original author of the famous sonnet â€Å"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?†. Shakespeare’s intentions for writing this poem was to compare his beloved to a Summer’s Day. Shakespeare wrote and published this original version of Sonnet 18 in 1609, but was rewritten in the early 1900’s by Howard Moss. Shakespeare s sonnets were published only once in his lifetime. For nearly two centuries after their first appearanceRead MoreLove in Shakespeares Sonnets 18 and 130 Essay703 Words   |  3 PagesAlmost four hundred years after his death, William Shakespeares work continues to live on through his readers. He provides them with vivid images of what love was like during the 1600s. Shakespeare put virtually indescribable feelings into beautiful words that fit the specific form of the sonnet. He wrote 154 sonnets; all of which discuss some stage or feature of love. Love was the common theme during the time Shakespeare was writing. However, Shakespeare wrote about it in such a way that captivatedRead MoreThe Sonnet By Sir Thomas Wyatt1167 Words   |  5 Pagesthere are many different types of groups within poetry. There are various types of poetry -- which include the sonnet. The sonnet was introduced by an Italian poet named Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) who introduced the creation in the 13th century (Applebee 295). He wrote over 300 love sonnets, a great number of them were dedicated to a woman named Laura. Centuries passed in which sonnets were not as popular; his work was later rediscovered by two lovelorn poets. Their names were Sir Thomas Wyatt

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Financial Statement Analysis of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd free essay sample

? University of Dhaka Faculty of Business Studies Department of Finance Course Title: Financial Accounting and Reporting Course Code: F – 504 Submitted By: Sifat Monjur Shamrat Roll: 24040 Submitted To: Samia Sultana Tani Assistant Professor Department of Finance Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka Date of Submission: Sunday, August 18, 2013 August 18, 2013 To Samia Sultana Tani Assistant Professor Department of Finance Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka Sub: Financial ration analysis from financial statement of a company. Dear Madam, I am pleased to submit the Term paper that you have assigned. My assignment was on â€Å"Ratio Analysis from financial statement of a reputed company†. I hope and believe that you will be kind enough to consider any types of mistakes that occurred at the time of preparing this proposal. Thank you. Yours sincerely, Sifat Monjur Shamrat Roll : 24040 Executive Summary A few comments on the organization and content of the report may be helpful to reader. We will write a custom essay sample on Financial Statement Analysis of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In doing so, we realize that some topics may be more important to some reader then to other. For that reason we some advanced material (e. g. questionnaires) appears in appendices. Our goal is to help the reader who must compare financial position of these two companies. First we focused on the essential element of this report. We have included here the introduction of this report, objectives of the report, findings, methodology, so that the reader can get ideas easily. The second part is very important from the sense of this report. Here we have given our recommendation of the report. We have tried out level best to give the commendation neutrally. It also contains the conclusion of this report. Contents: Topic Page Introduction 1 Objective of the Report 1 Limitation of the Study 1 Literature 2 Analysis 4 Summary and Conclusion 11 Introduction: Financial Statement includes the Balance Sheet, Income statement and other statement which determine the company’s performance. Financial ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios which are derived from information in company’s financial statements. Financial ratios are the analyst’s microscope. It allowed them to get a better view of the firm’s financial health than just looking at the raw financial statements. Objective of the Report This term paper is prepared under submitted as a major requirement of the Financial Accounting Course. Financial Accounting provides the facts needed to make informed economic as well as operational control. Limitation of the Study Limitation of the study is about: a) Based on only secondary source of data b) Time bound restrict me for further research on the topic c) There is not possible to analyze every ratio of the financial statement Literature: Financial Ratio: Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firm’s performance and financial situation. Financial ratios can be used to analyze trends and to compare the firm’s financials to those of other firms. Current Ratio Current ratio is the ratio of current assets of a business to its current liabilities. It is the most widely used test of liquidity of a business and measures the ability of a business to repay its debts over the period of next 12 months. Current ratio is calculated using the following formula: Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities Receivables Turnover Ratio An accounting measure used to quantify a firms effectiveness in extending credit as well as collecting debts. The receivables turnover ratio is an activity ratio, measuring how efficiently a firm uses its assets. Receivables turnover ratio = Net receivable sales/ Average accounts receivables Inventory Turnover A ratio showing how many times a companys inventory is sold and replaced over a period. The days in the period can then be divided by the inventory turnover formula to calculate the days it takes to sell the inventory on hand or inventory turnover days. Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Asset Turnover : The amount of sales generated for every dollars worth of assets. It is calculated by dividing sales in dollars by assets in dollars. Asset Turnover Ratio = Net Sales Average Total Assets Return On Asset: An indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings. ROA = Annual Net Income Average Total Assets Return On Equity: The amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. Return on equity measures a corporations profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested. ROE = Annual Net Income Average Stockholders Equity Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Balance Sheet As on 31. 03. 2009 As on 31. 03. 2008 As on 31. 03. 2007 Non-Current assets 9,407,730,001 8,291,290,984 6,804,429,292 Property, Plant and Equipment-Carrying Value 4,899,679,832 4,088,432,171 3,531,003,509 Capital Work-in-Progress 591,114,649 481,239,419 Investment – Long Term (at Cost) 4,508,050,169 3,611,744,164 2,792,186,364 Current Assets 3,843,512,855 4,411,836,436 3,682,510,712 Inventories 2,098,755,231 2,026,736,322 1,544,191,798 Trade Debtors 477,562,002 360,245,646 322,864,637 Advances, Deposits and Prepayments 260,330,162 288,806,440 236,455,395 Investment in Marketable Securities (at Cost) 20,250,000 20,250,000 20,250,000 Short Term Loan 693,157,720 1,510,502,334 1,418,893,703 Cash and Cash Equivalents 293,457,740 205,295,694 139,855,179 TOTAL ASSETS 13,251,242,856 12,703,127,420 10,486,940,004 Shareholders’ Equity 9,949,397,634 8,417,040,705 7,333,257,612 Share Capital 1,207,224,000 894,240,000 596,160,000 Share Premium 2,035,465,000 2,035,465,000 2,035,465,000 General Reserve 105,878,200 105,878,200 105,878,200 Tax Holiday Reserve 1,101,935,237 1,101,935,237 1,101,935,237 Retained Earnings 5,498,895,197 4,279,522,268 3,493,819,175 Non-Current Liabilities 660,976,668 785,241,612 598,116,106 Long Term Loans – Secured 449,757,608 602,584,615 492,569,379 Deferred Tax Liability 211,219,060 182,656,997 105,546,727 Current Liabilities 2,640,868,554 3,500,845,103 2,555,566,286 Short Term Bank Loans 1,534,345,782 2,669,693,184 1,818,777,878 Long Term Loans – Current Portion 295,590,601 297,002,646 225,176,449 Trade Creditors 124,222,699 100,953,258 60,601,743 Liabilities for Expenses 69,573,702 32,290,235 24,565,248 Liabilities for Other Finance 617,135,770 400,905,780 426,444,968 TOTAL EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 13,251,242,856 12,703,127,420 10,486,940,004 Square Pharmaceutical Ltd Income Statement For the year ended 31-03-09 For the year ended 31-03-08 For the year ended 31-03-07 NET TURNOVER 9,820,796,568 8,257,843,739 7,500,811,349 Less: COST OF GOODS SOLD 5,672,565,973 4,856,061,933 4,268,447,662 GROSS PROFIT 4,148,230,595 3,401,781,806 3,232,363,687 Less: Operating Expenses 1,779,793,368 1,692,475,988 1,406,611,448 PROFIT FROM OPERATIONS 2,368,437,227 1,709,305,818 1,825,752,239 Other Income 665,520,915 604,628,504 220,144,368 Less: Financial Expenses 397,135,963 351,868,423 236,845,084 NET PROFIT BEFORE WPPF 2,636,822,179 1,962,065,899 1,809,051,523 Less: Allocation for WPPF 125,562,961 93,431,709 86,145,311 NET PROFIT BEFORE TAX 2,511,259,218 1,868,634,190 1,722,906,212 Less: Provision for Income Tax 592,644,226 409,660,827 347,984,083 Less: Provision for Deferred Income Tax 28,562,063 77,110,270 71,679,289 NET PROFIT AFTER TAX 1,890,052,929 1,381,863,093 1,303,242,840 Earnings Per Share (EPS) 156. 56 114. 47 145. 74 1. Current ratio: Current Assets (2008-2009): Cash and Cash Equivalence + Inventories + Trade Debtor + Advance, Deposits and Payment + Investment at Marketable Securities (at cost) + Short Term Loan = 293,457,740 +2,098,755,231 + 477,562,002 + 260,330,162 + 20,250,000 + 693,157,720 = 3,843,512,855 Current Assets (2007-2008): Cash and Cash Equivalence + Inventories + Trade Debtor + Advance, Deposits and Payment + Investment at Marketable Securities (at cost) + Short Term Loan = 205,295,694 + 2,026,736,322 + 360,245,646 + 288,806,440 + 20,250,000 + 1,510,502,334= 4,411,836,436 Current Assets (2006-2007): Cash and Cash Equivalence + Inventories + Trade Debtor + Advance, Deposits and Payment + Investment at Marketable Securities (at cost) + Short Term Loan = 139,855,179 + 1,544,191,798 + 322,864,637 + 236,455,395 + 20,250,000 + 1,418,893,703 = 3,682,510,712 Current Liability (2008-2009): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans – Current Portion + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabili ties for Other Finance = 1,534,345,782 + 295,590,601 + 124,222,699 + 69,573,702 + 617,135,770 = 2,640,868,554 Current Liability (2007-2008): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans – Current Portion + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabilities for Other Finance = 2,669,693,184 + 297,002,646 + 100,953,258 + 32,290,235 + 400,905,780 = 3,500,845,103 Current Liability (2006-2007): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans (Current Portion) + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabilities for Other Finance = 1,818,777,878 + 225,176,449 + 60,601,743 + 24,565,248 + 426,444,968 Table 1: Calculation of Current Ratio Year Current Assets (I) Current Liability (II) Current Ratio IV= I ? II 2009 3,843,512,855 2640868554 1. 46 2008 4,411,836436 3500845103 1. 26 2007 3682510712 2555566286 1. 44 Debt to Equity Ratio: Total Debt (2008-2009): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans – Current Portion + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabilities for Other Finance + Loan Term Loan (secured) + Deferred Tax Liability = 1,534,345,782 + 295,590,601 + 124,222,699 + 69,573,702 + 617,135,770 + 449,757,608 + 211,219,060 = 3301845222 Total Debt (2007-2008): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans – Current Portion + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabilities for Other Finance + Loan Term Loan (secured) + Deferred Tax Liability = 2,669,693,184 + 297,002,646 + 100,953,258 + 32,290,235 + 400,905,780 + 602,584,615 + 182,656,997 = 428,60,86715 Total Debt (2006-2007): Short Term Bank Loans + Long Term Loans – Current Portion + Trade Creditors + Liabilities for Expenses + Liabilities for Other Finance + Loan Term Loan (secured) + Deferred Tax Liability = 1,818,777,878 + 225,176,449 + 60,601,743 + 24,565,248 + 426,444,968 + 492,569,379 + 105,546,727 = 315,36,82392 Share holder’s Equity (2008-2009): Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 1,207,224,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 5,498,895,197 = 9,949,397,634 Shareholder’s Equity (2007-2008): Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 894,240,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 4,279,522,268 = 8,417,040,705 Shareholder’s Equity (2006-2007): Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 596,160,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 3,493,819,175 = 7,333,257,612 Table 2: Debt to Equity Ratio Year Debt (I) Equity (II) Debt to Equity Ratio III = I ? II 2009 3301845222 9949397634 0. 33 2008 4286086715 8417040705 0. 51 2007 3153682392 7333257612 0. 43 Receivable Turn Over: Annual Net Credit Sales: Assuming that all sales are on credit. 2008-2009: Gross Turnover – Value Added Tax = 11,366,597,928 – 1,545,801,360 = 9820796568 2007-2008: Gross Turnover – Value Added Tax = 9,565,715,902 – 1,307,872,163 = 8,257,843,739 2006-2007: Gross Turnover – Value Added Tax = 8,711,034,758 – 1,210,223,409 = 7,500,811,349 The practical data of the Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. show the following results: Table 5: Receivable Turnover Ratio Year Net Sales (I) Receivable (II) Receivables Turnover Ratio III = I ? II 2009 9820796568 477562002 20. 56 2008 8257843739 360245646 22. 92 2007 7500811349 322864637 23. 23 Average Collection / Receivable Turnover in Days: This indicates the average number of days it takes a company to collect unpaid invoices. A ratio indicates that the company is having problems getting paid for service or products. The ratio is sometimes seasonally affected, rising during busy seasons, and falling during the off season. To account for this seasonality, the average accounts receivables (beginning + ending account receivables / 2) could be used instead. Average collection period can be determined by the following formula: Table 6: Average Collection Period Year Receivable Turnover (I) Average Collection Period II = 365 ? I 2009 20. 56 18 2008 22. 92 16 2007 23. 23 16 Inventory Turnover: Cost of Goods Sold: 2008-2009:Raw material consumed+ Packing Material Consumed+ Work in Process (opening) – Work in Process (ending) + Factory Overhead + Purchased of Finished Goods+ Finished Goods (Opening) – Finished Goods (ending) = 3,004,618,146 + 1,318,695,068 + 141,106,414 – 146,340,693+ 1,123,414,629 + 218,136,279+ 581,543,862 – 568,607,732 = 5,672,565,973 2007-2008: Raw material consumed+ Packing Material Consumed+ Work in Process (opening) – Work in Process (ending) + Factory Overhead + Purchased of Finished Goods+ Finished Goods (Opening) – Finished Goods (ending) = 2,770,478,855 + 1,144,141,207 + 119,969,662 – 141,106,414 + 874,353,806+ 211,761,614+ 458,007,065 – 581,543,862 = 4,856,061,933 2006-2007: Raw material consumed+ Packing Material Consumed+ Work in Process (opening) – Work in Process (ending) + Factory Overhead + Purchased of Finished Goods+ Finished Goods (Opening) – Finished Goods (ending) = 2,401,727,164 + 927, 381,432 + 108,390,739- 119,969,662 + 748,199,160 + 247,748,512 + 412,977,382 – 458,007,065) = 4,268,447,662 Inventory: 2008-2009: Raw Materials + Packing Materials + Work-in-Process + Finished Goods + Spares Accessories + Goods in Transit = 712,447,113 + 203,170,462 + 146,340,693 + 568,607,732 + 99,673,071 + 368,516,160 = 2,098,755,231 2007-2008: Raw Materials + Packing Materials + Work-in-Process + Finished Goods + Spares Accessories + Goods in Transit = 688,846,968 + 186,341,475 + 141,106,414 + 581,543,862 + 87,243,576 + 341,654,027 = 2,026,736,322 2006-2007: Raw Materials + Packing Materials + Work-in-Process + Finished Goods + Spares Accessories + Goods in Transit = 562,131,687 + 166,890,495 + 119,969,662 + 458,007,065 + 90,596,538 + 146,596,351 = 1,544,191,798 Table 7: Inventory Turnover Ratio Year Cost of Goods Sold (I) Inventory (II) Inventory Turnover ratio III = I ? II 2009 5672565973 2098755231 2. 70 2008 4856061933 2026736322 2. 40 2007 4268447662 1544191798 2. 76 Return On Equity (ROE): Net Profit After Tax: 2008-2009: Gross Profit – Operating Expense + Other Income – Fin ancial Expenses – Allocation for WPPF – Provision for income tax – Provision for deferred income tax = 4,148,230,595 – 1,779,793,368 + 665,520,915 – 397,135,963 – 125,562,961 – 592,644,226 – 28,562,063 = 1,890,052,929 2007-2008: Gross Profit – Operating Expense + Other Income – Financial Expenses – Allocation for WPPF – Provision for income tax – Provision for deferred income tax = 3,401,781,806 – 1,692,475,988 + 604,628,504 – 351,868,423 – 93,431,709 – 409,660,827 – 77,110,270 = 1,381,863,093 2006-2007: Gross Profit – Operating Expense + Other Income – Financial Expenses – Allocation for WPPF – Provision for income tax – Provision for deferred income tax = 3,232,363,687 – 1,406,611,448 + 220,144,368 – 236,845,084 – 86,145,311 – 347,984,083 – 71,679,289 = 1,303,242,840 Shareholder’s Equity: 2008-2009: Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 1,207,224,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 5,498,895,197 = 9,949,397,634 2007-2008: Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 894,240,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 4,279,522,268 = 8,417,040,705 2006-2007: Share Capital + Share Premium + General Reserve + Tax Holiday Reserve + Retain Earnings = 596,160,000 + 2,035,465,000 + 105,878,200 + 1,101,935,237 + 3,493,819,175 = 7,333,257,612 Table 12: Return On Equity Ratio Year Profit After Tax (I) Shareholder Equity (II) ROE III = I ? II 2009 1890052929 9949397634 0. 19 2008 1381863093 8417040705 0. 16 2007 1303242840 7333257612 0. 18 Summary and Conclusion Considering the entire financial ratio for the Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. we can say that at present the overall condition of the company is good. It had a mixed period from the year 2007 to 2009. It has decreasing tend in 2008 but then again went up in 2009. The company gross profit margin is stable at around 42% constant rate. Net profit margin was stable at 17% over 2007 – 2008 and showed an increasing trend in 2009 to reach 19%. But the company had a weak asset turnover ratio over this period. But we find that heir financial management is as stronger as required to attract large number of shareholders. At the end we can conclude that, the company has strong growth rate in recent years with a strong market reputation. But still the company should keep keen eyes in management operation to improve the financial condition.

Monday, April 13, 2020

An investigation into the effect definite and indefinite articles have on memory Essay Example

An investigation into the effect definite and indefinite articles have on memory Paper This experiment is based on an experiment carried out by Loftus and Zanni. In this experiment they showed participants a video of a car crash and asked them to remember the things on it. They then asked the participants questions using indefinite and definite articles. The aim of this experiment was to see how the use of a definite or indefinite article can affect the answers that participants give when asked about what they have seen in a selection of pictures. The alternative hypothesis was that the use of a definite article would in fact produce a different answer from the participants than the use of an indefinite article. It was predicted that the use of a definite article is more likely to return a positive answer from the participant, whereas an indefinite article is least likely to return a positive answer from the participant. The null hypothesis was that the use of a definite or indefinite article would in fact have no difference on the answers given by the participants. We will write a custom essay sample on An investigation into the effect definite and indefinite articles have on memory specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on An investigation into the effect definite and indefinite articles have on memory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on An investigation into the effect definite and indefinite articles have on memory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This was an experiment. It used repeated measures. The target population was students over the age of 16 at King Edward VI sixth form in Morpeth in the North East of England. The sampling method was non random opportunity sampling and seven participants were chosen. The mean for a definite article is as follows: Yes = 4.4 No = 2.6 The mean for an indefinite article is as follows Yes = 1.6 No = 5.4 In this experiment the alternative hypothesis was accepted and the null hypothesis was rejected as the results showed that that people make more mistakes is asked did you see the than if asked did you see a therefore this suggests that whether a definite or indefinite article is used in a question can affect the answer given. Introduction Loftus and Zanni (1975) looked at the way in which the psychology of memory and language can be manipulated. Their goal was to find out if there was a difference in the participants response when a definite or indefinite article was used. They selected one hundred participants and showed them a film of a car accident. The participants were then asked to fill out a 22 item questionnaire which contained six critical questions. For half of the participants the six critical questions started with did you see a while for the other half of the students the questions began with did you see the. The a being indefinite and the the being definite. The results showed that 15% of the participants answered yes when the definite article was used and with the indefinite article 7% answered no. This experiment shows that you can change the way that people react to questions just by using definite or indefinite articles in the question. When using a definite article you are misleading the participant as it suggests that what you are saying is actually true. This is unethical as this technique could be used in the court room to make witnesses say they saw something that they in fact did not see. Aim: The aim of this experiment is to see how the use of a definite or indefinite article can affect the answers that participants give when asked about what they have seen in a selection of pictures. Alternative hypothesis: The use of a definite article would in fact produce a different answer from the participants than the use of an indefinite article. It is predicted that the use of a definite article is more likely to return a positive answer from the participant, whereas an indefinite article is least likely to return a positive answer from the participant. Null hypothesis: The use of a definite or indefinite article will in fact have no difference on the answers given by the participants. Design The independent variable in this experiment was whether or not a definite or indefinite article was used. In this case the definite article was the word the and the indefinite article was the word a. The dependant variable was the number of participants that said they saw something that was not actually there just because the question was asked using a definite article rather than an indefinite article. An extraneous variable is something that could affect the results of the experiment. An extraneous variable for this experiment could have been if there was a window in the room then the participant may have been distracted by what was going on outside the room and therefore not be able to concentrate fully on the experiment and therefore having a negative effect on the DV. This was controlled by closing the blinds and doors in the room in which the experiment took place to keep all distractions to a minimum. An ethical issue in this study was informed consent. Informed consent is where the researcher gets the signature of the participants to say that they are willing to take part in the experiment and that they understand what is going to happen in the experiment. The participants were asked for their consent in the brief of the experiment and were asked for their signature therefore making the experiment more ethical as they have given informed consent. Participants: The target population was students over the age of 16 at King Edward VI sixth form in Morpeth in the North East of England. The sampling method used is known as non random opportunity sampling Non opportunity sampling is where the researcher takes advantage of having some participants available to include in the research. This is simply made up of people that are available and willing. The reason that this method of sampling was used is that it is quick, easy and free. It is straight forward as it takes no preparation as the researcher can just pick who they want straight away without having to go through any sort of process. Seven participants were selected using this sampling method. Apparatus and Materials: In this experiment 5 different pictures were used so that questions could be asked about them using the indefinite and definite articles mentioned earlier. Procedure Brief: By taking part in this investigation you are agreeing to partake in an investigation into how the use of definite or indefinite articles in a question affects the answer a participant gives. You will not be deceived in any way during this experiment and it is completely anonymous. You will not be emotionally or physically harmed by taking part in this investigation and you have the right to withdraw yourself and your results at any time. A signature is required for proof of consent however your name will not be used in any way to keep anonymity. Method: The participants were sat down one by one at a table with nothing but a piece of paper and a pen on it. Before the experiment began the participants were given the brief. In the brief it was explained what would be happening in the experiment and since there was no deception involved there was no need for the issue to be addressed. The participants were asked to sign a piece of paper and print their name next to it to say that they gave their consent to participate in the experiment. All blinds in the room were closed and any computer screens were turned off to get rid of any distractions. After this 5 different pictures were shown one after the other (each being held up for 5 seconds) to the participants. Once all of the pictures had been shown the same process was repeated to make sure that the participants had seen all the pictures well. After this the participant was asked five questions containing a definite article and 5 questions containing an indefinite article by the researc her who recorded the answers on the piece of paper. Each question was about whether or not they could recall a certain thing in the set of pictures.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Contemporary Christian Music essays

Contemporary Christian Music essays The purpose of my project was to determine the different feelings and attitudes towards Contemporary Christian music and traditional church music. Both of these genres have the same general purpose of praising and worshipping the lord. However, the general audiences and feelings resulting from this music are very different. To achieve this I interviewed members of The Bread of Life Church in Pine Bush and Most Precious Blood in Walden. Both of these churches observe the Christian faith but thus ends the similarities. The Bread of Life Church is a more casual and friendly environment. Which explains why it contains many young families and teenage parishioners. Music is a vital portion of the mass and members are encouraged to perform. No set songs are consistently involved in the masses and they are not specific to season. It is also a newly established church that relied totally on people joining it. Most Precious Blood is a formal and traditional church composed mostly of older parishioners and families well established in the area. As in most churches of this type music plays a much more minor role in the mass. Many of the songs repeat at every mass you attend and are season specific. This church originates from the initial founding of the Town of Walden. Traditional church music was written to inspire reverence and generally takes on a solemn tone. These songs were written in the days where worship was a duty and should not be enjoyed. The music of this type was basically a repetition of the Bible. Joshua, a thirteen year old from Most Precious Blood states I dont understand most of the words in the song all I know is that we sing with reverence. When asked what he felt the purpose of the music is and how he felt singing it his answers were as I had suspected. He stated that the purpose was to make them remember how much praise God deserves. Joshua said he felt not much of anything when s...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Olympia, ancient game effect art and religion and vice versa Research Paper

Olympia, ancient game effect art and religion and vice versa - Research Paper Example These religious rituals ultimately transformed into Olympic Games1. Nothing exactly can be said about the occurrence of the first Olympic Games. However, it is believed that Olympic Games were held first time in 776 B.C. To some extent, Olympic Games helped to change the war-like situation among the city states into a temporary peace as Sparta, the most aggressive city state, used to lull sending its warriors into battle until the games are over. This tradition was followed by other city states in true letter and spirit. Surprisingly, women had been forbidden to take part in the games. Death penalty was awarded to them even if they watched these games. However, in 396 B.C., a woman from Rhodes broke this tradition by watching Olympic Games. According to narrated story, his husband died before the event and hence she prepared her son for the boxing competition. She watched the game of her son in disguised as man but caught after jubilant shouts. Her death penalty was pardoned as a special case. Milo of Croton was considered as the greatest athlete of ancient games. He won the wrestling crown six times in 500 B.C. It is narrated that he was so powerful that he used to carry a full grown bull on his shoulders. Artists from all over the Greek used to witness the event. The famous Greek poet, Pindar wrote many odes narrating the capabilities and potential of the winners of the game. The buildings which were constructed in Olympia portrayed the rich heritage of Greek architecture2. There was a strong relationship among Olympic Games, religion and art in ancient times as well as in modern day of the games. The charter of modern Olympic Games coined a term ‘Olympism’ that it defines as â€Å"a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind†. Thus, the term ‘Olympism’ describe a religion without divinity3. The Olympic Games in Greek were being played with